Wednesday, July 06, 2022

VW Golf Gallery

(Reading time: 1 - 2 minutes)

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VW history

(Reading time: 2 - 4 minutes)

The history of Volkswagen Cars & Campers

The Wolfsberg story and the VW Golf Generation
Although the VW Beetle reached cult classic status throughout Europe, and the camper vans had sold well, the brand popularity began to decline by the mid 1970's. With the drop in Beetle sales, VW had to find another way forward, as people were choosing water cooled engines over their air cooled, German counterparts. This new way was the Golf, hailed as the saving grace of Volkswagen.
By now, VW had bought Audi, and began production on their new front wheel drive car, the Rabbit. Since its inception, there have been many incarnations of the Golf - 5 to date. This new found popularity led to a reincarnation of the beloved Beetle, and a revamp of the Camper into the Micro Bus, among other new vehicles.
Now called VAG - (the Volkswagen Audi Group) things continue to look good for the motor group, with names such as Lamborghini, Bentley, Skoda and Bugatti bringing with them their strength and prestige.
VW beat the Japanese to begin trading in the US market, and by the end of the 1960's, had become the brand name to be reckoned with. Beating Nissan to the Number One spot, the Beetle and the Ghia were shining examples of German automotive genius. 
Yet the Arabian Oil Embargo of 1973 hit VAG hard, and by 1993, the company had hit an all - time low of only 49,000 sales, a top figure that was less than 9% of their peak sales only twenty years before. Another rethink was in order, and a new marketing campaign to focus on the Jetta was organised.
With the new marketing strategy, the emphasis was on fun loving, energetic, young people. Leaving young married couples and parents behind, the brand was seen as the epitome of youth culture - cutting edge and cool again thanks to the successful new Jetta image.

New Strategies

This new rougher edged marketing did the trick, and by 1996, VW was back! Enjoying the kind of success that gave them a sales increase of nearly 700%, the Rabbit and the Passat were selling well by 1997.
Following this major run of success, VW got set to launch its new generation Beetle. Using this as a critical part of future business strategy, the company planned on adding an SUV and pickup ranges. After these would come the luxury range of Volkswagen.
Following on from the success of the Golf at this time, a Plus version was released - the same Golf only bigger! Other variations on this popular theme included an R32 model, which boasted an Audi 3.2L quattro engine. So successful, new versions of the Polo and Passat were also released!
Nowadays, the most recent versions include the Eos convertible, the Phaeton and the hybrid Passat and the next generation Jetta, Fox, Lupo and super mini the Up.
The newest Golf is the W12 - a wider version of the Mark 5 and the Golf R.


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Toyota timeline

(Reading time: 2 - 3 minutes)

Toyota guide

1933 to present
1933 : The famed and globally renown Toyota started out with the Toyota Automatic Loom Works, a weaving machinery manufacturer in Japan, formed a car manufacturing division.
1937 : The Car division of Toyota Automatic Loom Works is officially named Toyota Motor Co.
1947 : Production of Cars ceases during World War II, Toyota commence producing cars again after the end.
1950s : Toyota introduces a legendary sytem the just-in-time delivery system.
1957: The first US Japanese Toyota dealer opens, the dealership known as Rose Toyota.
1958 :Rose Toyota Sells its first car Toyota in the U.S, a 4 door saloon the 'Toyopet Crown'.
1959: Toyota decide to open a manufacturing plant in Brazil, the first Toyota plant outside Japan.
1968 : The economy size Toyota Corolla is introduced in the U.S.
1973 : A hike in fuel prices during the 1970's OPEC oil crisis boosts the popularity of Japanese economy cars where as other manufacturers suffered such as Lamborghini 
1975 : Toyota outsells Volkswagen to become the best selling car (foreign import) brand in the U.S.
1978: The first incarnation of the legendary Toyota Supra Mark 1 makes is released in Japan
1979: The Toyota Supra Mark 1 known as the Celica Supra is eventually released in the US
1982: The Toyota Supra Mark 2 is released in Japan & the US
1983 : The Toyota Camry is launched.
1984 : Toyota Open their 1st US assembly plant in Fremont, California, this was a joint venture between General Motors Corp & Toyota.
1986: The Toyota Mark 3 is released 
1989 : The 1st completely owned major American Toyota plant, in Georgetown, Ky is opened. Introducing Lexus, the luxury division of Toyota.
1993 : The Toyota Supra mark iv is released
2000 : The petrol & electric Prius hybrid sedan is introduced to the US market
2002 : Toyota manufactures its 10 000, 000th vehicle inside North America.
2003: Toyota becomes the world's second-biggest car manufacturer, with 6.78 million vehicles sold worldwide.


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Toyota Supra

(Reading time: 7 - 14 minutes)

Japan 1979

The Toyota Supra known as the Celica in Japan, the car is a sports car/ gt (Grand tourer) similar to the name Renault 5 GT (Grand tourer) Turbo, production of the car started in 1979. The Celica-Supra cars design was inspired by the car it goes by the same name of. However it became its own car in 1986, no longer was the car cast under the vale of this previous auto model, it even lost the Celica prefix. Part of the cars heritage, the engine comes from the little known 2000GT. The first 3 marks ran a descendent of the GT's M engine type. However all models ran an inline 6-cylinder engine, a piston configuration perfectly balanced, meaning very little vibration from the engine.

The Origin

"Supra" is a Latin derivative meaning "over, above, beyond, or greater than". However translated into english it basically means "from above the heavens". The logo is that of a dragon. The Dragon was dispalyed until 1989 when it was rebranded to their oval logo.

Mk 1 Supra (1979-1981)

Manufacture dates : 1979-1981
Engine Code : MA4x
Engine: 2.0 Litre M-EU I6, 2.0 Litre M-TEU I6, 2.6 Litre 4M-E I6, 2.8 Litre 5M-E I6
Gearbox: 5-speed W50 manual, 4-speed A40D automatic, 4-speed A43Dautomatic
Wheelbase: 103.5 in (2628.9 mm)
Length: 181.7 in (4615.2 mm)
Width: 65.0 in (1651.0 mm)
Height: 50.8 in (1290.3 mm)
Curb weight: ~2800 lb (1270.1 kg)
The car came with either 4 speed or 5 speed, all round disc brakes, 4-link rear shocks with coilover springs, lateral track bar and stabiliser bars. The suspension at the front of the Celica Supra Mark 1 utilised a stabilizer bar with Macpherson shocks. The car came with optional extras including electric windows and central locking, cruise control and a custom trim with pull straps plus a sunroof.
1980, saw the BHP increased to 145 hp from a 2.0 L 12-valve SOHC Garrett T3 Turbocharger-inline-6 (M-TEU). The first Toyota car to have a Turbo, however no intercooler was fitted. The interior received a new centre console & digital quartz clock. On the outside the mirrors were restyled & 14x5.5 allloy rims were added, there was even optional leather seating and auto climate control, a truly luxurious addition.
1981 saw the release of an optional Sports Performance Package including sports suspension, white letter tires, front / rear spoilers. This car was the last Toyota auto to come with an 8 track unit.

Supra Mk 2 (1982-1986)

Supra Mk 2 - Celica XX
Production: 1982-1986
Engine Type: MA6x, GA6x
Engine: 2.0 L M-TEU I6, 2.0 L M-TE I6, 2.0 L 1G-EU I6, 2.0 L 1G-GEU I6, 2.8 L5M-E I6, 2.8 L 5M-GE I6
Gearbox: 5-speed W58 manual, 4-speed A43DL automatic, 4-speed A43DEautomatic
Wheelbase: 102.9 in (2613.7 mm)
Length: 183.5 in (4660.9 mm)
Width: 67.7 in (1719.6 mm)
Height: 52.0 in (1320.8 mm)
Curb weight: ~3000 lb (1360.8 kg)
Economy: 18-21 MPG city / 20-28 MPG hwy
Fuel Tank: 16.1 U.S. GAL (60.4 L)
In 1982, the car underwent a complete redesign. The Japanese car market knew the car as Celica XX, where as the rest of the world recognised the car as the Celica Supra. It was still based on the original, but featured a few extras:- a restyled front end & pop up headlamps. The engine and chassis were both changed and an inline-6 now resided, also the length of the car needed to be increased to house the new engine.

American Market

The North American Supra market were honoured with 2 models and many styles firstly the luxury version the L-type & of course a Performance Type the P-type. Both versions looked the same, however if you look closer many things varied including tires, wheels and interior and the exterior.

P-Type Supra

The P-type Supra came standard with a limited slip differential (LSD), larger wheel arches (Fender Flares) constructed from fibreglass for a more aggresive look in addition the P version came standard with eight setting adjustable sports seats, 14 x7 alloy rims until 1985 when the rim diameter size was increased to 15 x 6, and being a sporty version came with an analogue dash and even headlamp washers for serious cross country driving. After 1983 the car was available with leather interior.
L-Type Supra
This version came with many optional extras including a digital dash trip computer capable of calculating ETA, MPG & Trip. This came with a digital tachometer, digital speedo, electronic level gauges and 14"x5.5 alloy rims, but no LSD.


The US Celica Supra ran a 2.8 12-valve Straight 6 DOHCM-GE, capable of 145 bhp and 155 ft·lbf (210 N·m) of torque. The engine ran at a level of 8.8:1 compression, it was fitted with independent suspension on all wheels specifically tuned by Lotus it also came with assisted rack-and-pinion steering and MacPherson struts up front. The back of the car was fitted with semi-trailing arm suspension coil springs and anti-roll bar.
The interior came standard with electric window heated mirrors, central locking, cruise control, tilt steering wheel, just like all MK 1's. Other models included a sunroof, two-tone paint job, 5-speaker FM tape tuner head unit, the optional extra head unit consisted of a 105-watt amp with 7-channel equalizer.
In 1983 an electronic controller that adjusted the shift pattern for a balance between performance and economy was added to the box. The first of its kind to provide an "Electronically Controlled Transmission" (ECT) all at the touch of a button. The "Power" mode gave the fastest acceleration and "Normal" mode set all levels to otimium performance, later that year 1983 engine output was lifted to 150 bhp and 159 ft lbf of torque from the 5M-GEIn engine In 1984, Toyota changed the Supra quite dramatically. The overall power was increased to 160 bhp and 163 ft·lbf (221 N·m) of torque. The door handles were changed now opening by pulling up instead of pulling sideways. Toyota also decided to offer two-tone paint jobs on both types.
1985 an increase again to 161 hp (120 kW) and 169 ft·lbf (229 N·m) of 56torque. They also added a standard theft deterrent system and exterior mirrors had a de-fogger added this ran started when the rear demister was activated. All Mark 2 Supras from 1985 had automatic-cut-off lights and an auto illuminated start and fade lighting system.
Due to 1985 being the final year of the 2nd generation model, production delays for the 3rd gen mean't there were many surplus Mark 2 Supras leftover. therefore the Mark 2 P-Type was offered into quadrant of 1986.

Mk 3 Supra (1986 1/2-1992)

Production: 1986 1/2-1992
Engine Type : MA7x GA7x JZA7x
Engine: 2.0 L 1G-GE I6, 2.0 L 1G-GTE I6, 2.5 L 1JZ-GTE I6, 3.0 L 7M-GE I6, 3.0 L 7M-GTE I6
Transmission: 5-speed W58 Manual, 5-speed R154 Manual, 4-Speed A340E Automatic
Wheelbase: 102.2 in (2595.9 mm)
Length: 182.3 in (4630.4 mm)
Width: 68.7 in (1744.9 mm)
Height: 51.2 in (1300.5 mm)
Curb weight: ~3500 lb (1587.6 kg)
Fuel capacity: 18.5 gal. (70.0 L) [1]
The Mark 3 was released in the middle of 1986, Toyota decided to drop the cars prefix and produce both a Celica and the Supra.
The Toyota Celica was changed to a front wheel drive car, and the Supra kept its rear wheel drive setup. The A60 (Mk II) and A70 (MK III) had vey similar designs. The engine now used was a a 3.0 Litre, there was even CT-26 turbo (the 7M-GTE) version, however this wasn't available till 1987. This turbocharged engine the 7M-GTE, was running 230 bhp while the naturally-aspirated engine was running 200 bhp. The naturally aspirated Supra came with a W58 manual gearbox and the Turbo'd 7M-GTE came with a R154 gearbox. Both models of the Mark 3 were available with a 4-speed autobox, most common the A340E.


In 1989, the Mk 3 received new rear lenses, front bumper, badges and side styling amongst in addition the wastegate was modded and ECU tuned to gain another 2 bhp. In 1991 the alloy wheels were changed to 5-spoke 16x7 fitted with 225/50/16 rubber.
In 1988 the Turbo-A model was released this was a special Supra design targetted at the Group-A touring car world championships. Only 500 of the Turbo-A cars were ever made. The car was a tuned 7M-GTE with 263 bhp, this made its it the fastest Japanese road car till the dawn of the Nissan Skyline R32-GTR. The A was available in black only, it came with a grey leather interior, an upgraded intercooler, it also utilised a MAP + IAT sensor air meter, the car came with an upgraded compressor wheel on its CT-26 turbocharger unit.
The 3rd gen Supra was state of the art it came with 4-channel ABS and TEMS (Toyota Electronically Modulated Suspension) to set the auto's shocks, as well as double wishbone suspension all round.
The 7M-GTE MA70 can perform a 0-60 mph time in 6.6 seconds with 6.8 psi of boost and a 1/4 mile in 15.1 reaching 93 mph
Top speed 149 mph

Toyota Supra Mk IV (1993-2002)

Production: 1993-2002
Platform: JZA8x
Engine type : 3.0 L 2JZ-GE I6, 3.0 L 2JZ-GTE I6
Transmission: 5-speed W58 Manual, 6-speed V16x Manual, 4-Speed A341E Automatic
Wheelbase: 100.4 in (2550.2 mm)
Length: 177.7 in (4513.6 mm)
Width: 71.3 in (1811.0 mm)
Height: 50.2 in (1275.1 mm)
Curb weight: ~3400 lb (1542.2 kg)
With the fourth generation of the Supra, the Mark 4 was classed as a Supercar. The latest design was redesigned from the styling to its engine, it was given more aggresive looks, but also given a softened body mimicking that of the famed Ferrari F40. The car came with two engine types: a naturally aspirated 2JZ-GE 150 bhp - 210 ft·lbf of torque and the beast version a twin turbo 2JZ-GTE running 280 bhp, 260 ft·lbf of torque. This power was the same as lot of the other Jap Supercars namely the RX7 and the GTR. The Mark 4 Turbo could pull 0–60 mph in 4.6 seconds and 1/4 mile (402 m) in 13.1 seconds reaching 109 mph.


The Supra cars engine produces upto 1000 bhp with ease with the standard twin turbos a few tuning parts such as bolt-on upgrades boost controller high-flow exhaust manifold & full system. All versions were restricted 180 km in Japan and 250 elsewhere on the globe.
The MK IV Supra's came with sequential twin turbos rather than the parallel type. This setup consists of two turbos of equall size, this reduces turbo lag. The Jap Supra cars turbo came with ceramic blades where as European & US markets had steel blades.
Engine takeoff explained:-
Setoff - The Exhaust is routed to the 1st turbo this reduces turbo lag resulting in more boost and torque this was noticable very low down the revs at around 1800 rpm.
4000 rpm - the exhaust system is routed to the 2nd turbo charger, this creates pre-boost mode.
4500 rpm - the 2nd turbo is merged to the intake air, both turbo-chargers now are operating in parallel.
To cope with the additional engine components and setup the Mark 4 was given a 6-speed Getrag transmission on Turbo versions and the naturally aspirated received a 5-speed manual.
Weight reduction
The Supra turbo came with 235/45/17 rubber on the front and 255/40/17 rubber at the rear. The naturally aspirated model came with 225/50/16 front & 245/50/16 rear and five spoke aluminium alloys. As the new version was targetted at the Supercar market, the weight was reduced mainly by the use of hollow carpet fibre's. The car had an Aluminium constructed roof, targa top , front crossmember, oil sump, and A-arms. Many of the components were lighter to including head bolts dished out, plastic fuel tank, gas injected rear spoiler, magnesium steering wheel and a large single exhaust tip. The car was also given more features including airbags, traction control, bigger brakes, larger rims even with these extras it still weighed in at around 100 lbs lighter than the Mark 3 Supra.
All 1997 to 1998 Supra models included badges with Limited Edition 15th Anniversary on them.
In 1998 the naturally aspirated version was changed to a VVTI increasing bhp 5 hp and 10 ft·lbf of torque. The Supra Mark 4 Turbo was never available in California, New York or Boston Massachusetts with regards to change in their emission regulations.
These cars have been modified to pull a quarter of a mile in around 7.9 seconds and develop 1500 BHP. The standard 2JZ-GTE engine is extremely durable & rugged, it can be tweaked upto 1000 bhp as standard with no uprating of internal engine parts. This places the Supra's 2JZ-GTE engine in the same league of the RB26 engine, the Skyline GTR. A standard MK IV Supra is world renown for roadracing its lighter than either the R33 or R34. The Supra & Skyline and RX7 by Mazda are all seen as natural competitiors in Japan in either street racing or track racing. The 2JZ engine has altered little since its release in 1993.
In 1998, Toyota stopped importing the Supercar into the U.S. from Japan, the car was eventually killed off in 2002 due to new emission regulations being introduced in 2003.
1999 saw a complete halt in sales in the US, then in 2002 Toyota officially stopped all manufacturing in Japan.

A Mk V?

What about a revival of the Supra. The car was first deemed to be the flagship or halo model in Toyotas car division, alledgedly running a race tuned V8, costing around $60,000. This myth came about due to numerous vehicles being spotted round the Nurburg ring Germany these test cars were however future Lexus cars.
Toyota have never released any data or articles or press releases ralting to a new version as of yet.
The Toyota GT86, the new Supra?
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Peugeot history

(Reading time: 2 - 4 minutes)

A brief Peugeot history

The lion goes from strength to strength

The histories of the Peugeot family and of the company are directly linked to one region of Eastern France, Montbeliard. The Lion, the emblem of the make, is also on the coat of arms of Franche-Comté, the birthplace of the family. Peugeot is an industrial adventure, but also a human one. It is the story of a family that was able to adapt to the changes of each age, while retaining a strong social conscience: Savings bank, Mutual help organization; free treatment, insurance, hospitals, schools, a pension system, a 10 hour day, 33 years before it was law.
From the first tricycles to the latest models, the firm with Lion brand rapidly became one of the leading French manufacturers, before entering the international market.
1885 to 1935
In 1885 Armand Peugeot sets up bicycle manufacture at the Beaulieu plant. He exhibits the first steam-powered tricycle at the 1889 Paris World Exhibition. That makes the company one of the pioneers of the automobile. The following year Peugeot abandoned steam in favor of petrol.
In 1896 a new company was set up, “Société des Automobiles Peugeot”, devoted exclusively to automobile manufacture. At the same time, the “Sons of Peugeot Bros” company continued its traditional activities: tools, bicycles and shortly motorcycles, and between 1905 and 1915 a range of light vans called “Lion”.
In 1910 the two firms merged under the name "Société Anonyme des Automobiles et Cycles Peugeot". The family then attacked the nascent automobile market.
The aerodynamic design, the symbol of an entire epoch, would influence car design until World War II, it culminated in the launch of the 402 in 1935.
In 1960 Peugeot changed from being a specialist to a generalist: the production of classic sedans and small models. In 1974 the Peugeot Group acquired control of Citroen. The acquisition of the chevron brand was completed in 1976, giving birth to an automobile group with two distinct makes.
The second oil crisis in 1978 caused a crisis in the automobile industry, following three decades of growth. Peugeot decided to adapt itself without delay to an environment that had profoundly changed. This involved ensuring the long-term survival of the business, and maintaining its independence. Taking over the European subsidiaries of Chrysler and the Talbot adventure shook the company’s solidity at the beginning of the 1980’s. The success of the 205 and a major restructuring of the organization put Peugeot back on the road to success.
1997 marks the start of a major industrial reorganization, with the adoption of a platform policy and shared industrial tools at Peugeot-Citroen. Each brand retained its name, personality and sales network. That was the beginning of a vast exercise in rejuvenating the range, starting with the 206, followed by the 607, then the 307, 407 and most recently the Peugeot 2008, and their supercar the Onyx.
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Nismo 400R LM

(Reading time: 3 - 5 minutes)

A Nismo tuned Skyline?

The most volatile version of the infamous Skyline, saw the light of day late in February 1996 with a very limited number of only 99 being released. NISMO intended the 400R to be a road legal version of the car, in celebration of the success of the GT-R LM on the race track.
The NISMO 400R differs to the GT & GT-S, as it doesn't have rear-wheel drive, it builds on an uprated chassis of the powerful R33 GT-R V-Spec.
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Nissan Skyline modification

(Reading time: 2 - 3 minutes)

Modifying a GTR 

Since the R32 the Skyline has been recognised as the ultimate Jap supercar with this comes, you guessed it - modification
The Skyline has always been prone to modification due to its aggresive looks and above all the RB26DETT engine and its strength. The engine, used in all GT-Rs, is of the most highly modifiable variants which maintains its durability. There are many tuners who supply aftermarket "bolt on" upgrade kits for the Skyline GT-R range to boost power beyond stock.
Check out these modified skylines
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Skyline GT-R

(Reading time: 3 - 6 minutes)
The Skyline GT-R was reintroduced in 1989. Initially most models sold were the basic models such as the GT-S, however the top of the range version was becoming a symbol of Nissan's performance globally. The performance and the toys many advanced breakthroughs in handling and performance were showcased by the GT-R, it demonstrated many advances never seen in mass production, even though, the 1989 - GT-R's remained cheap in comparison. The 1990's started with the R32, making its debut in 1989, through to the R34 released in 1998 which ended production in August 2002 when the G35 Nissan was launched in Japan which had a standard model lineup.
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Nissan Skyline Timeline

(Reading time: 3 - 6 minutes)

The Skyline - 1957 onwards

Nissan, a quality Japanese motor company with great styling, well as far as the Skyline goes, The Skyline arguably the Japanese manufacturers best ever production road car. How ever it was not always this way read on...

GENERATION 1: 1957-1963 ALSI 1

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Nissan History

(Reading time: 2 - 3 minutes)

Interesting facts

Nissan cars numbered $49.7 billion in1998, production topped over 2,750,000 units & employees topped 137,000.
The alliance last May between Nissan & Renault, added $40.5 billion in vehicle sales, therefore over 2,200,000 units of production and 138,000 employees creating the number 4 car maker group globally just behind GM, Ford & Toyota with a market share of 9.1%.
Nissan supports many charitable events including MADD, Nissan Open, Tomas Rivera Institute, the Los Angeles Urban League and many others. The company is seen as a responsible company, recognised for its safety leadership, environmental & communal activities globally.
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Mini history

(Reading time: 1 - 2 minutes)

The Mini

Austin, British Leyland, Riley and BMW

1959 Where it all began
The Mini began emerged on 26 August 1959. It was designed, by little known Sir Alec Issigonis , who would have known the cult status his car would achieve her throughout the world. The cars main objective was to simply be:-
1. Affordable
2. Seat four adults
3. Small enough to travel in safety. 
The first mini was powered by 850cc 34bhp engine built and manufactured by Morris.
Mini cars come in all shapes and sizes today Cooper, One, Cooper D, even an offroad version.
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Mercedes Sports cars

(Reading time: 1 - 2 minutes)


Sports Car Gallery

The rarest and most advanced German motor cars of the era. From the 1938 W125, a car well before it's time, all pictured in the Mercedes Benz Museum in Stuttgart.


1938 Mercedes Benz W 125

A Twelve Cylinder car built way back in 1938, however the design is way more aerodynamic than any other vehicle of its time, this German supercar was capable of a Top speed 268.9 MPH



Top - C-111


Bottom Right - F400 Carving


Bottom Left - 2003 Mercedes benz F500 Concept



Various Mercedes cars including the 300SL




A list of the letters relating to the various Mercedes models over the years.




The CLK GTR engineered by AMG



Formula 1 car





Different German car models including the 1


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