Wednesday, July 06, 2022

Ferrari history, Italy - Modena

(Reading time: 4 - 8 minutes)

Enzo Ferrari was born near Modena Italy in 1898 on February 18th. Since being 10 years old he'd been inspired by cars and racing, and seeing his 1st car race in Bologna, Italy, watching avidly, this race gave the young Italian car enthusiast an idea. After viewing more car races, Enzo declared he wanted to drive racing cars.

While being employed by a car maker converting surplus war vehicles, It was decided it was the right time to start racing.
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Bugatti history

(Reading time: 3 - 5 minutes)

Bugatti History

The history of the famous Italian Supercars

One of Italy's most famed car manufacturers, around since the dawn of Ferrari & Lamborghini.
Ettore Bugatti, the Italian Supercar manufacturer, was born in Italy in 1881. The car legacy that bears his name 'Bugatti' was founded in the Alsace region in a place called Molsheim, which was then a part of Germany (but was restored to France in 1919). The company, now owned by Volkswagen,was best known for it's advanced engineering knowlegde and the production of premium road cars. A successful Grand Prix racing history came through winning the first ever Monaco Grand Prix. Successful drivers included Jean-Pierre Wimille, who won the Le Mans twice (in 1937 Robert Benoist and 1939 Pierre Veyron).
Bugatti cars are seen as works of art as well as mechanical creations, with all models featuring hand turned finishing on the engine blocks. Also, in an aid to make the cars better for racing, lightening holes were added in every location possible.
Ettore regarded his arch competitor as Bentley, he referred to these as "the world's fastest trucks" as they focussed on durability. He always believed and spoke that ' weight was the enemy'. Bugatti really didn't care too much for his customers though, and complaints regarding his Supercars were ignored. He is remembered as saying his devotion was to his creations, not to his customers...
For example, in one meeting with an unhappy customer returning to the factory he responded with:-
"What, you again?", after the customer had spoke he would complete the conversation with
"Well, see that it does not happen again!".
Ettore was renowned throughout automotive history as The Cubist. Many of Bugatti's engine designs were small in size but extremely powerful, adopting three valves per cylinder, sometimes utilising superchargers to gain additional power. The Double overhead cam shaft design from US race cars from Miller, was used as a fundemental design attribute and applied to all future cars.
In 1991 one of the most well known cars was born - The Bugatti EB110 Supercar.
Then 1998 brought possibly one the most technologically advanced cars ever - The Bugatti Veyron, under the design of VW. The car cost a record £50,000,000 to make, and in true artistic fashion, was made purely to see if it could be done. The car is completely astounding, as it dons a 16 Cyclinder engine with quad turbos capable of pulling 0-60 in around 2.5 seconds and a Top Speed of 254 MPH! Wow! It is available now as the Pur Sang, a Carbon Fibre and aluminium constructed model, available as a limited edition of only 25 models.
According to Jeremy Clarkson of Top Gear who drove the Veyron from Italy to London, "We may never see a car as technologically advanced in our lifetime, than this car".
First recorded crash of the Bugatti Veyron in the UK
The most expensive car crash in the world involved the infamous Bugatti Veyron, an £830,000 Supercar. This was one of the twelve dozen living in the UK — the collison happened in driving rain.
The insurance assessors are painstakingly working out if the VW owned car was repairable - one dreads to think of the worlds most costly & exclusive write-off in history.
A local police source explained that the Veyron supercar (capable of a staggering 253mph) driven by a young driver was travelling at approx 100mph in a 40mph area of B375 close to Chertsey in the county of Surrey.
The Supercar careered out of control and spun 3 times, collided with an Astra which had aboard a seven-month pregnant female, then continued its slide and finished up in trees on top of a 3ft high bank. The pregant lady is fine.
However the driver has been charged with driving without due care and attention.
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Barabus TKR

(Reading time: 2 - 3 minutes)

Barabus TKR

Fastest car in the world, maybe in 2006
Where it all began
The TKR is fully engineered, developed, certified and even marketed by Barabus Sportscars Limited, they successfully created a 1005 BHP SuperCar which runs 0-60 in unheard of times. The idea was merge lightning acceleration like a Formula 1 car with raw power with the added extra of the everyday drivability, luxury & in a road car.
The TKR has been researched and engineered by the world’s most talented engineers, combine that with the use of cutting edge technologies and race tuned parts, and you have a serious piece of kit. It looks a cross between a Koenigsegg CCX and a Saleen S7. The supercar itself is driven by an all aluminum V8 engine, rebuilt with racing components and re-tuned, basically re-engineered by Barabus, and then modded with twin turbo's and twin intercoolers to keep her cool.
This type of development and race engineering is capable of creaing 1005BHP at 6800 rpm.
Barabus claim the TKR will travel 270 miles per hour and reach 0-60 mph time of 1.67s and hit the redline @ 7500 rpm.
When you look at this car one thing screams out at you, that of Italian Supercar, however there is one difference such as Ascari and thats, that the V8 engine is British engineered and TKR supercar itself is to be built in Colonella, Italy, therefore demonstrating a "best-in-practice" philosophy, using worldwide parts and expertise. 
The auto needs some pretty impressive stopping power, this is solved by the addition ceramic brakes.
As for getting your hands on this motor, well the car is available globally through a pre selected range of Barabus certified dealers specialists in exotics & supercars. It is thought that 300-400 models will be made and sold over a 3 year period, at a price of around 660,000 USD or £360,000. Can this challenge the Bugatti Veyron.
The official Barabus website quotes 'The TKR is designed to compete with the world's fastest, quickest, best handling, most luxurious grand touring cars in the world'.
Lets see how it fairs.
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Ascari history

(Reading time: 2 - 3 minutes)

Ascari history

The name Ascari links back to its racing routes, inspired by Alberto Ascari (1918 - 1955) its founder, one of the Three Musketeers and the first to win a Formula 1 World championship, twice.
A supercar in the making
Alberto was born on the outskirts of Milan, Italy. Like Enzo Ferrari he had racing in his veins, Antonio his father was a talented and well known Grand Prix racing driver famed through his races in the 1920's driving various Alfa Romeo cars.
The Ascari supercar heritage heads to Dorset in England. In1995, a racing team started to develop a limited edition super car, the Ecosse this was then launched in 1998.
two years later in the year 2000 Ascari built their first facility in Banbury, the reason behind this was to create a place where development could start on the 2nd Ascari car, the KZ1, and also to give their racing Team, aptly name The Ascari team a base to work from. This brought road-and-race side of the Ascari group together for the first time in one place. The Banbury development centre, demonstrates the Italian car founders history and accomplishments and outlines their racing philosophy,. the factory itsself demonstrates modern production techniques. The new centre still seemed to lack the energy needed to push it further, later in 2000 the first Ascari world Race Resort was founded.
Ascari Race Resort
A new concept in racing and seeing where it all began, the resort is located in a beautiful area in Southern Spain a relaxed, yet exhilerating experience redefining the term 'race and relax'. The chance to live an Italian racing car drivers life, the Ascari race resort combines luxury and adrenalin with a modern race circuit.
Watch out for our review on the Ascari A10 as test driven by Jeremy Clarkson on Top Gear. The car that now holds the record by the stig on the BBc programs test track.
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VW Camper Gallery

(Reading time: 1 - 2 minutes)

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VW Camper

(Reading time: 3 - 5 minutes)

VW Bus, van, splitty 

The Volkswagen Camper idea
This german vehicle is as common today as it was when it was launched at the end of World War II, with today many versions of the VW camper being restored back to original spec.
During WW2 the Wolfsberg factory was taken over by the British, to ensure the German engineers could no longer manufacture weapons and vehicles for their armed forces. The Volkswagen factory ran extremely well before and after the conflict, however it had a glitch which meant production suffered in the early years. The German car plant needed to transport parts from one side of the factory to the other anightmare for engineers and mechanics,however this was solved by stripping down a couple of Beetle cars and loading them and ferrying the parts from one side to the other, essentially turning them into transporters.
In 1947 an importer from the Netherlands Ben Pon an importer sketched a picture bearing a striking resemblance to the Beetle based van from Wolfsberg. Two years later a similar vehicle to the sketch was unveiled at the Geneva Motor Show, people were amazed and in essence were seeing an early version of the camper, they immediately drew the conclusion it was a horse and cart with mechanics.
The first VW camper van was born from this concept. This idea started life as a box on wheels, a170 cubic ft box built over a four wheeled chassis. Over the coming five years 90 versions were released everything from delivery to ice cream vans, around 50 were purely for delivery purposes ranging from mobile milking machines to milk floats & mobile veterinaries.
The emergency services even jumped on the band wagon Police, fire, ambulances all camper based.
When these unique vehicles were released in the USA around the mid 1950's, they flew. The camper was a real home from home it came with a sink & large living space. By 1963 US citizens had bought well over 150,000 campers.
Spilt window (Splitty), Samba and Bay
The splitty shortened from Split window was the first camper released. This van is one of the most desired vehicles today in the vintage volkswagen market and sells from anything upto £25,000 restored. The Split ceased production in 1967 and was replaced by the Bay, this van was quite different to its predecessor, many refinements were added however the characteristic split windows disappeared to make room for winders, on the plus side the top speed was increased to 80 mph.
VW Bay camper ad
The Bay bus made the simple camper van a 1975 icon, The Hanover factory in Germany manufactured over 4,000,000 models, this spurred a range of engine sizes from the 1600 and 2000 cc all air cooled like the supercar manufacturer Porsche.
VW believed in the Bus Camper with such conviction that they offered a Gold watch to any driver who managed to get their bay campers over 100,000 miles, this turned out to be a bad idea, as over 160,000 watches were given to drivers due to it' s proven continual reliability. In 1979 production ceased and the T25 replaced it, even now it is still manufactured in South America along with the Citi Golf.
Over 5 000 000 VW were campers made and still are seen cruising all over the world, owners vary from surfers to enthusiasts even friends -


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VW Mk2 Golf GTI

(Reading time: 3 - 6 minutes)

The Volkswagen Golf Mk2

A2 / Typ 19E / 1G, 1983–1992 - As good as the Mk1

The VW Mk2 Golf was introduced in 1983 in Europe (In the US 1985 as the Rabbit) as a direct replacement for the infamous Mk1. The second mark has a larger body, a more modern interior including a bigger dashboard and the addition of MFA and electric windows to mention a few. The new model came with new styling including arches and sill covers in addition there was a wide range of different body and engine options, ranging from a 5 door 1.4 model to the flaired arched Rallye with a 16V 1.8 supercharged engine.

Which model?

The Mk2 came in a range of models from the 1.2 GL to the G60, the GTI was by far the most popular, even this model was available with either a DOHC 1.8 litre 16-valve or an 8V 1.8 engine. This car runs a Bosch fuel injection system the same as many other modern cars of that time e.g. Escort XR3i. As with all performance cars there is always a 'warm hatch' the Golf Driver. This was released 1988, it came with the GTI styling inside and out, which was basicallyt a twin headlamp grille, wheelarchs, the main difference was the 1.6  engine. The final years of production for the Driver meant it was treated to a carburetted 1781 cc engine.

16V Mk2 Golf GTI 1991 | H Plate


However it seemed the GTi wasn't fast enough for all, therefore Volkswagen decided to produce a flagship Golf, The Rallye and G60 both basically the same, supercharged with either 2wd or 4wd options. The Rallye was a racing variant, it came with a racing interior, cloth or leather sports buckets, fabricated wide arches at the front and rear, rectangular headlamps with a smaller grille, streamlined bumpers with a unique style. Only 5000 were ever manufactured all left hand drive and hand built in Belgium between 1989 and 1990 to a preset rally specification. These cars were £20,000 when they were released, but for 20 grand you got All wheel drive, a supercharged 1800 double overhead cam engine with ABS braking discs all round and on 205 rubber.


The G60 was subtler version still same setup but much more tame looking it had a few tell tale signs it came with a wider version of the plastic GTI arch. The two cars also came with specialist wheels. There was also a handful of handmade limited edition each one these autos was engineered and tuned by an elite team at the Volkswagen Motorsport division. The car ran a supercharged 16V GTI DOHC engine combined with a sports gearbox and all wheel drive Synchro.
71 Limited edition Black Golf G60's exist all with four doors except two extremely rare three door models, these were fitted with a slimmer rectangle headlight grille & a blue surround (red symbolised a GTI) with motorsport logos, these two G60 autos were air conditioned, and came witha unique number and plaque.
One of these motors would have cost you £25,000, these Golfs were mainly sold to Volkswagen & Audi executives and other VAG management, these cars were capable of producing 212 bhp, the most powerful until the MKV Golf R32 was unleashed in 2003.

Diesel & GTD

The new Mk2 Golf was even available in a diesel and turbo diesel engine options. The one that shot to fame was the Golf GTD, basically a diesel powered GTI.
VW had all bases covered they released a model called the Golf Country, an off-road variant ideal for farmers. The Country cam with, four wheel drive , lengthened suspension travel, bullbars, skidplate with external spare wheel. In the EU the Golf Country came with either a 75 BHP 1.6 GTD engine or a 114 bhp 1.8 8v petrol. It was a common site in many Alpine regions around Europe.
Styling over time
The Mk2 Golf had facelift after facelift . The first major one was the addition "Big Bumpers" in 1989 onwards in European markets. A deeper and larger bumper, colour coded on the bottom and black at the top. The quarter panel window was also disposed of, making the glass one piece. The grill slats were also made larger and lessened after 1987. Other extras included power steering, electric windows, pop out rear windows, smoked indicators & lenses and Jetta lights were used in the US on the Rabbit.
The Golf GTI won Motor Trend's car of the year 1985, and was awarded VW Vortex's "Best Golf of all time".
However overall Mk2 failed to achieve its goal, this was to imitate the same presence of the Mk1, it had already lost its audience to the French Peugeot 205. However this hard should have never been made to attempt to replace the Mark1 , its a real car in its own right.

"Changes" Volkswagen advertising campaign

The 1987 British advertisement "Changes" starring Paula Hamilton, who happened to bear a striking resemblance to the late Lady Diana, Princess of Wales. It was supposed to strategise the shock tactic, it worked like a dream this combined with " If only everything in life was as reliable as a Volkswagen". This make the Mk2 Golf and overnight success.


The ad by Volkswagen shows a lady looking similar to Di leaving her house posting her wedding ring through her letter box ,ripping off her pearl necklace and throwing a mink coat then throwing her keys to at her cat awww, then she hovers over a drain with her Golf Mk2 keys, then decides no and gets in and drives off, then the slogan friends -



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VW Mk1 Golf GTI

(Reading time: 2 - 4 minutes)

This new breed of hot hatch came with a front wheel drive system, 4 gears and a water-cooled engine.

Wheels magazine 'Car of the Year 1975 VW Golf'

Matey - Matey 2006
A Euro Mk1 Golf GTI with european / US chrome strip bumpers, euro styling and deep dish rims.
The concept car was designed and engineered by a VW team out of work, the deisgn for the final version of VW Golf was by Italdesign studio designer Giorgetto Giugiaro. The GTI model was fuel injected therefore increasing the 1588 cc engine to 108 bhp.
In 2004 the Rabbit / Mk1 GTI was named 3rd best car of the 1980's by Sports Car International. Jeremy Clarkson even says its the best hot hatch ever made.
Matey - Matey 2006
A Euro Mk1 with cross hair crystal headlamps dropped on Porsche rims

VW in the US

In 1978 Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, Volkswagen were the first Euro car manufacturer to manufacture vehicles in the US. James McLernon former Chevrolet exec was giving the task of making it run. McLernon for some unkown reason attempted to "Americanise" the Rabbit by reducing its qualities first he softened the sports suspension and made the interior from much lower quality materials. VW followers and German company execs were outraged. Therefore in 1983, the Pennsylvania VW plant went back back to fitting stiffer suspension and a high quality interior trim. The Rabbit GTI and first ever Caddy were manufactured at the US plant also.
A change?
In 1980 across the Euro range a face lift was applied, larger rear lamp clusters replaced the small design, jetta style headlamps in the US and a new dashboard with display.
Mk1 Clipper Convertible Anodised filler cap M3 lenses and deepdish wheels
Drop top cabby
The Golf convertible, Cabriolet or rag top was manufactured from 1980 to 1993 (A Mk2 Cab was never made, this meant the Mk1 was continued witha few slight modifications, until the intro of the Mk3). The Cabrio came in a range of limited edition designs including the Coco Channel, Karmann Ghia, Rivage and the Sportline, the newer version came with a transverse roll bar, reinforced body, luxury interior and on some models a power hood.
The A1 Mk1 drop top has a unibody construction and built exclusively a Karmann. VW supplied the interior, suspension luxury and water cooled engine and Karmann fitted it. There was a range of hoods available a budget vinyl, standard and a premium Mohair all insulated with horse hair and either manually or powered up and down, later models came equipped Mohair and glass rear window as standard.
2008 and in South Africa the Mk1 Golf is still manufactured, a four-door "Citi" & a Caddy known as the Pickup.
pa friends -

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VW Golf Gallery

(Reading time: 1 - 2 minutes)

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VW history

(Reading time: 2 - 4 minutes)

The history of Volkswagen Cars & Campers

The Wolfsberg story and the VW Golf Generation
Although the VW Beetle reached cult classic status throughout Europe, and the camper vans had sold well, the brand popularity began to decline by the mid 1970's. With the drop in Beetle sales, VW had to find another way forward, as people were choosing water cooled engines over their air cooled, German counterparts. This new way was the Golf, hailed as the saving grace of Volkswagen.
By now, VW had bought Audi, and began production on their new front wheel drive car, the Rabbit. Since its inception, there have been many incarnations of the Golf - 5 to date. This new found popularity led to a reincarnation of the beloved Beetle, and a revamp of the Camper into the Micro Bus, among other new vehicles.
Now called VAG - (the Volkswagen Audi Group) things continue to look good for the motor group, with names such as Lamborghini, Bentley, Skoda and Bugatti bringing with them their strength and prestige.
VW beat the Japanese to begin trading in the US market, and by the end of the 1960's, had become the brand name to be reckoned with. Beating Nissan to the Number One spot, the Beetle and the Ghia were shining examples of German automotive genius. 
Yet the Arabian Oil Embargo of 1973 hit VAG hard, and by 1993, the company had hit an all - time low of only 49,000 sales, a top figure that was less than 9% of their peak sales only twenty years before. Another rethink was in order, and a new marketing campaign to focus on the Jetta was organised.
With the new marketing strategy, the emphasis was on fun loving, energetic, young people. Leaving young married couples and parents behind, the brand was seen as the epitome of youth culture - cutting edge and cool again thanks to the successful new Jetta image.

New Strategies

This new rougher edged marketing did the trick, and by 1996, VW was back! Enjoying the kind of success that gave them a sales increase of nearly 700%, the Rabbit and the Passat were selling well by 1997.
Following this major run of success, VW got set to launch its new generation Beetle. Using this as a critical part of future business strategy, the company planned on adding an SUV and pickup ranges. After these would come the luxury range of Volkswagen.
Following on from the success of the Golf at this time, a Plus version was released - the same Golf only bigger! Other variations on this popular theme included an R32 model, which boasted an Audi 3.2L quattro engine. So successful, new versions of the Polo and Passat were also released!
Nowadays, the most recent versions include the Eos convertible, the Phaeton and the hybrid Passat and the next generation Jetta, Fox, Lupo and super mini the Up.
The newest Golf is the W12 - a wider version of the Mark 5 and the Golf R.


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Toyota timeline

(Reading time: 2 - 3 minutes)

Toyota guide

1933 to present
1933 : The famed and globally renown Toyota started out with the Toyota Automatic Loom Works, a weaving machinery manufacturer in Japan, formed a car manufacturing division.
1937 : The Car division of Toyota Automatic Loom Works is officially named Toyota Motor Co.
1947 : Production of Cars ceases during World War II, Toyota commence producing cars again after the end.
1950s : Toyota introduces a legendary sytem the just-in-time delivery system.
1957: The first US Japanese Toyota dealer opens, the dealership known as Rose Toyota.
1958 :Rose Toyota Sells its first car Toyota in the U.S, a 4 door saloon the 'Toyopet Crown'.
1959: Toyota decide to open a manufacturing plant in Brazil, the first Toyota plant outside Japan.
1968 : The economy size Toyota Corolla is introduced in the U.S.
1973 : A hike in fuel prices during the 1970's OPEC oil crisis boosts the popularity of Japanese economy cars where as other manufacturers suffered such as Lamborghini 
1975 : Toyota outsells Volkswagen to become the best selling car (foreign import) brand in the U.S.
1978: The first incarnation of the legendary Toyota Supra Mark 1 makes is released in Japan
1979: The Toyota Supra Mark 1 known as the Celica Supra is eventually released in the US
1982: The Toyota Supra Mark 2 is released in Japan & the US
1983 : The Toyota Camry is launched.
1984 : Toyota Open their 1st US assembly plant in Fremont, California, this was a joint venture between General Motors Corp & Toyota.
1986: The Toyota Mark 3 is released 
1989 : The 1st completely owned major American Toyota plant, in Georgetown, Ky is opened. Introducing Lexus, the luxury division of Toyota.
1993 : The Toyota Supra mark iv is released
2000 : The petrol & electric Prius hybrid sedan is introduced to the US market
2002 : Toyota manufactures its 10 000, 000th vehicle inside North America.
2003: Toyota becomes the world's second-biggest car manufacturer, with 6.78 million vehicles sold worldwide.


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Toyota Supra

(Reading time: 7 - 14 minutes)

Japan 1979

The Toyota Supra known as the Celica in Japan, the car is a sports car/ gt (Grand tourer) similar to the name Renault 5 GT (Grand tourer) Turbo, production of the car started in 1979. The Celica-Supra cars design was inspired by the car it goes by the same name of. However it became its own car in 1986, no longer was the car cast under the vale of this previous auto model, it even lost the Celica prefix. Part of the cars heritage, the engine comes from the little known 2000GT. The first 3 marks ran a descendent of the GT's M engine type. However all models ran an inline 6-cylinder engine, a piston configuration perfectly balanced, meaning very little vibration from the engine.

The Origin

"Supra" is a Latin derivative meaning "over, above, beyond, or greater than". However translated into english it basically means "from above the heavens". The logo is that of a dragon. The Dragon was dispalyed until 1989 when it was rebranded to their oval logo.

Mk 1 Supra (1979-1981)

Manufacture dates : 1979-1981
Engine Code : MA4x
Engine: 2.0 Litre M-EU I6, 2.0 Litre M-TEU I6, 2.6 Litre 4M-E I6, 2.8 Litre 5M-E I6
Gearbox: 5-speed W50 manual, 4-speed A40D automatic, 4-speed A43Dautomatic
Wheelbase: 103.5 in (2628.9 mm)
Length: 181.7 in (4615.2 mm)
Width: 65.0 in (1651.0 mm)
Height: 50.8 in (1290.3 mm)
Curb weight: ~2800 lb (1270.1 kg)
The car came with either 4 speed or 5 speed, all round disc brakes, 4-link rear shocks with coilover springs, lateral track bar and stabiliser bars. The suspension at the front of the Celica Supra Mark 1 utilised a stabilizer bar with Macpherson shocks. The car came with optional extras including electric windows and central locking, cruise control and a custom trim with pull straps plus a sunroof.
1980, saw the BHP increased to 145 hp from a 2.0 L 12-valve SOHC Garrett T3 Turbocharger-inline-6 (M-TEU). The first Toyota car to have a Turbo, however no intercooler was fitted. The interior received a new centre console & digital quartz clock. On the outside the mirrors were restyled & 14x5.5 allloy rims were added, there was even optional leather seating and auto climate control, a truly luxurious addition.
1981 saw the release of an optional Sports Performance Package including sports suspension, white letter tires, front / rear spoilers. This car was the last Toyota auto to come with an 8 track unit.

Supra Mk 2 (1982-1986)

Supra Mk 2 - Celica XX
Production: 1982-1986
Engine Type: MA6x, GA6x
Engine: 2.0 L M-TEU I6, 2.0 L M-TE I6, 2.0 L 1G-EU I6, 2.0 L 1G-GEU I6, 2.8 L5M-E I6, 2.8 L 5M-GE I6
Gearbox: 5-speed W58 manual, 4-speed A43DL automatic, 4-speed A43DEautomatic
Wheelbase: 102.9 in (2613.7 mm)
Length: 183.5 in (4660.9 mm)
Width: 67.7 in (1719.6 mm)
Height: 52.0 in (1320.8 mm)
Curb weight: ~3000 lb (1360.8 kg)
Economy: 18-21 MPG city / 20-28 MPG hwy
Fuel Tank: 16.1 U.S. GAL (60.4 L)
In 1982, the car underwent a complete redesign. The Japanese car market knew the car as Celica XX, where as the rest of the world recognised the car as the Celica Supra. It was still based on the original, but featured a few extras:- a restyled front end & pop up headlamps. The engine and chassis were both changed and an inline-6 now resided, also the length of the car needed to be increased to house the new engine.

American Market

The North American Supra market were honoured with 2 models and many styles firstly the luxury version the L-type & of course a Performance Type the P-type. Both versions looked the same, however if you look closer many things varied including tires, wheels and interior and the exterior.

P-Type Supra

The P-type Supra came standard with a limited slip differential (LSD), larger wheel arches (Fender Flares) constructed from fibreglass for a more aggresive look in addition the P version came standard with eight setting adjustable sports seats, 14 x7 alloy rims until 1985 when the rim diameter size was increased to 15 x 6, and being a sporty version came with an analogue dash and even headlamp washers for serious cross country driving. After 1983 the car was available with leather interior.
L-Type Supra
This version came with many optional extras including a digital dash trip computer capable of calculating ETA, MPG & Trip. This came with a digital tachometer, digital speedo, electronic level gauges and 14"x5.5 alloy rims, but no LSD.


The US Celica Supra ran a 2.8 12-valve Straight 6 DOHCM-GE, capable of 145 bhp and 155 ft·lbf (210 N·m) of torque. The engine ran at a level of 8.8:1 compression, it was fitted with independent suspension on all wheels specifically tuned by Lotus it also came with assisted rack-and-pinion steering and MacPherson struts up front. The back of the car was fitted with semi-trailing arm suspension coil springs and anti-roll bar.
The interior came standard with electric window heated mirrors, central locking, cruise control, tilt steering wheel, just like all MK 1's. Other models included a sunroof, two-tone paint job, 5-speaker FM tape tuner head unit, the optional extra head unit consisted of a 105-watt amp with 7-channel equalizer.
In 1983 an electronic controller that adjusted the shift pattern for a balance between performance and economy was added to the box. The first of its kind to provide an "Electronically Controlled Transmission" (ECT) all at the touch of a button. The "Power" mode gave the fastest acceleration and "Normal" mode set all levels to otimium performance, later that year 1983 engine output was lifted to 150 bhp and 159 ft lbf of torque from the 5M-GEIn engine In 1984, Toyota changed the Supra quite dramatically. The overall power was increased to 160 bhp and 163 ft·lbf (221 N·m) of torque. The door handles were changed now opening by pulling up instead of pulling sideways. Toyota also decided to offer two-tone paint jobs on both types.
1985 an increase again to 161 hp (120 kW) and 169 ft·lbf (229 N·m) of 56torque. They also added a standard theft deterrent system and exterior mirrors had a de-fogger added this ran started when the rear demister was activated. All Mark 2 Supras from 1985 had automatic-cut-off lights and an auto illuminated start and fade lighting system.
Due to 1985 being the final year of the 2nd generation model, production delays for the 3rd gen mean't there were many surplus Mark 2 Supras leftover. therefore the Mark 2 P-Type was offered into quadrant of 1986.

Mk 3 Supra (1986 1/2-1992)

Production: 1986 1/2-1992
Engine Type : MA7x GA7x JZA7x
Engine: 2.0 L 1G-GE I6, 2.0 L 1G-GTE I6, 2.5 L 1JZ-GTE I6, 3.0 L 7M-GE I6, 3.0 L 7M-GTE I6
Transmission: 5-speed W58 Manual, 5-speed R154 Manual, 4-Speed A340E Automatic
Wheelbase: 102.2 in (2595.9 mm)
Length: 182.3 in (4630.4 mm)
Width: 68.7 in (1744.9 mm)
Height: 51.2 in (1300.5 mm)
Curb weight: ~3500 lb (1587.6 kg)
Fuel capacity: 18.5 gal. (70.0 L) [1]
The Mark 3 was released in the middle of 1986, Toyota decided to drop the cars prefix and produce both a Celica and the Supra.
The Toyota Celica was changed to a front wheel drive car, and the Supra kept its rear wheel drive setup. The A60 (Mk II) and A70 (MK III) had vey similar designs. The engine now used was a a 3.0 Litre, there was even CT-26 turbo (the 7M-GTE) version, however this wasn't available till 1987. This turbocharged engine the 7M-GTE, was running 230 bhp while the naturally-aspirated engine was running 200 bhp. The naturally aspirated Supra came with a W58 manual gearbox and the Turbo'd 7M-GTE came with a R154 gearbox. Both models of the Mark 3 were available with a 4-speed autobox, most common the A340E.


In 1989, the Mk 3 received new rear lenses, front bumper, badges and side styling amongst in addition the wastegate was modded and ECU tuned to gain another 2 bhp. In 1991 the alloy wheels were changed to 5-spoke 16x7 fitted with 225/50/16 rubber.
In 1988 the Turbo-A model was released this was a special Supra design targetted at the Group-A touring car world championships. Only 500 of the Turbo-A cars were ever made. The car was a tuned 7M-GTE with 263 bhp, this made its it the fastest Japanese road car till the dawn of the Nissan Skyline R32-GTR. The A was available in black only, it came with a grey leather interior, an upgraded intercooler, it also utilised a MAP + IAT sensor air meter, the car came with an upgraded compressor wheel on its CT-26 turbocharger unit.
The 3rd gen Supra was state of the art it came with 4-channel ABS and TEMS (Toyota Electronically Modulated Suspension) to set the auto's shocks, as well as double wishbone suspension all round.
The 7M-GTE MA70 can perform a 0-60 mph time in 6.6 seconds with 6.8 psi of boost and a 1/4 mile in 15.1 reaching 93 mph
Top speed 149 mph

Toyota Supra Mk IV (1993-2002)

Production: 1993-2002
Platform: JZA8x
Engine type : 3.0 L 2JZ-GE I6, 3.0 L 2JZ-GTE I6
Transmission: 5-speed W58 Manual, 6-speed V16x Manual, 4-Speed A341E Automatic
Wheelbase: 100.4 in (2550.2 mm)
Length: 177.7 in (4513.6 mm)
Width: 71.3 in (1811.0 mm)
Height: 50.2 in (1275.1 mm)
Curb weight: ~3400 lb (1542.2 kg)
With the fourth generation of the Supra, the Mark 4 was classed as a Supercar. The latest design was redesigned from the styling to its engine, it was given more aggresive looks, but also given a softened body mimicking that of the famed Ferrari F40. The car came with two engine types: a naturally aspirated 2JZ-GE 150 bhp - 210 ft·lbf of torque and the beast version a twin turbo 2JZ-GTE running 280 bhp, 260 ft·lbf of torque. This power was the same as lot of the other Jap Supercars namely the RX7 and the GTR. The Mark 4 Turbo could pull 0–60 mph in 4.6 seconds and 1/4 mile (402 m) in 13.1 seconds reaching 109 mph.


The Supra cars engine produces upto 1000 bhp with ease with the standard twin turbos a few tuning parts such as bolt-on upgrades boost controller high-flow exhaust manifold & full system. All versions were restricted 180 km in Japan and 250 elsewhere on the globe.
The MK IV Supra's came with sequential twin turbos rather than the parallel type. This setup consists of two turbos of equall size, this reduces turbo lag. The Jap Supra cars turbo came with ceramic blades where as European & US markets had steel blades.
Engine takeoff explained:-
Setoff - The Exhaust is routed to the 1st turbo this reduces turbo lag resulting in more boost and torque this was noticable very low down the revs at around 1800 rpm.
4000 rpm - the exhaust system is routed to the 2nd turbo charger, this creates pre-boost mode.
4500 rpm - the 2nd turbo is merged to the intake air, both turbo-chargers now are operating in parallel.
To cope with the additional engine components and setup the Mark 4 was given a 6-speed Getrag transmission on Turbo versions and the naturally aspirated received a 5-speed manual.
Weight reduction
The Supra turbo came with 235/45/17 rubber on the front and 255/40/17 rubber at the rear. The naturally aspirated model came with 225/50/16 front & 245/50/16 rear and five spoke aluminium alloys. As the new version was targetted at the Supercar market, the weight was reduced mainly by the use of hollow carpet fibre's. The car had an Aluminium constructed roof, targa top , front crossmember, oil sump, and A-arms. Many of the components were lighter to including head bolts dished out, plastic fuel tank, gas injected rear spoiler, magnesium steering wheel and a large single exhaust tip. The car was also given more features including airbags, traction control, bigger brakes, larger rims even with these extras it still weighed in at around 100 lbs lighter than the Mark 3 Supra.
All 1997 to 1998 Supra models included badges with Limited Edition 15th Anniversary on them.
In 1998 the naturally aspirated version was changed to a VVTI increasing bhp 5 hp and 10 ft·lbf of torque. The Supra Mark 4 Turbo was never available in California, New York or Boston Massachusetts with regards to change in their emission regulations.
These cars have been modified to pull a quarter of a mile in around 7.9 seconds and develop 1500 BHP. The standard 2JZ-GTE engine is extremely durable & rugged, it can be tweaked upto 1000 bhp as standard with no uprating of internal engine parts. This places the Supra's 2JZ-GTE engine in the same league of the RB26 engine, the Skyline GTR. A standard MK IV Supra is world renown for roadracing its lighter than either the R33 or R34. The Supra & Skyline and RX7 by Mazda are all seen as natural competitiors in Japan in either street racing or track racing. The 2JZ engine has altered little since its release in 1993.
In 1998, Toyota stopped importing the Supercar into the U.S. from Japan, the car was eventually killed off in 2002 due to new emission regulations being introduced in 2003.
1999 saw a complete halt in sales in the US, then in 2002 Toyota officially stopped all manufacturing in Japan.

A Mk V?

What about a revival of the Supra. The car was first deemed to be the flagship or halo model in Toyotas car division, alledgedly running a race tuned V8, costing around $60,000. This myth came about due to numerous vehicles being spotted round the Nurburg ring Germany these test cars were however future Lexus cars.
Toyota have never released any data or articles or press releases ralting to a new version as of yet.
The Toyota GT86, the new Supra?
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